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Project News 06.2004

A new whitefly species emerges as
a pest of cereals in Central America


All available newsletters > | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 |

The recent upsurge in Bemisia tabaci, which has become of major concern in numerous places, has brought about an increased interest in this pest. A number of work groups have been organized in order to facilitate better exchange of information regarding control or management of the basic and applied aspects. These changes call for parallel changes in the 'Bemisia' newsletter, both in the subject matter that is covered and in the number of people that it reaches. Such changes will, permit the newsletter to continue to serve as a useful platform for the exchange of information about this interesting and important insect.

The present issue is devoted mainly to information about two new work groups, one that has formed some time ago, in Europe, and the other that is presently being formed in the U.S. We have also included a questionnaire that, once filled out and returned to us, should make the newsletter more useful. A short update on the information that is presently available about the parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci is included, as well as an announcement of a meeting on Bemisia tabaci that will take place this year in Israel.

  • Enemies of Bemisia tabaci
  • New Working Group on Biological Control of Whiteflies in the US
  • IOBC/WPRS "INTEGRATED CONTROL IN GLASSHOUSES": Information on the subgroup "Biological control of Bemisia tabaci in greenhouse crops"
    • Denmark
    • Germany
    • Hungary
    • Israel
    • Italy
    • Japan
    • The Netherlads
    • Spain
    • United Kingdom
    • United States
  • BARD sponsored international workshop on Bemisia tabaci

a. Parasitoids

Amitus bennetti A1B4C3D2
Amitus sp. from the Caribbean A3B4C3D2
Encarsia adrianae Lopez-Avila A1B3C3D4
Encarsia brevivena Hayat A1B4C3D4
Encarsia cibcensis Lopez-Avila A1B3C3D4
Encarsia desantisi Viggiani -bicolor DeSantis A1B?C3D4
Encarsia formosa Gahan *A1B3C2D1
Encarsia hispida DeSantis A1B3C3D4
Encarsia inaron (Walker) =partenopea Masi A1B3C2D4
Encarsia japonica Viggiani A1B?C3D4
Encarsia longifasciata Subba Rao A1B4C3D4
Encarsia lutea Masi *A1B3C2D2+3
Encarsia luteola Howard =deserti Ger. & Ri A1B3C5D2
Encarsia mineoi Viggiani A1B?C3D4
Encarsia mohyuddini Shafee & Rizvi A1B?C3D4
Encarsia nigricephala Dozier A1B2C2D3
Encarsia pergandiella Howard =versicolor Girault
=bemisiae DeSantis
=tabacivora Viggian
Encarsia porteri Mercet A1B1C3D4
Encarsia quaintancei Howard A1B1C3D4
Encarsia strenua Silvestri A1B4C3D4
Encarsia transvena Timberlake =sublutea Silv. *A1B3C2D2
Eretmocerus mundus Mercet *A3B3C4D3
Eretmocerus sp. A uniparental (HI) Calif. A3B3C?D3
Eretmocerus sp. B biparental Calif. **A3B3C?D3
Eretmocerus sp.corni Haldeman A3B1C3D4
Eretmocerus haldemani Howard A3B1C?D4

b. Predators

Ceracochrysa cubana A1B3C3D3
Chrysopodes collaris A1B3C3D3
Chrysoperla carnea A1B4C2D1
Chrysoperla rufilaris A1B4C2D1
Delphastus psillus **A1B3C2D1-3
Deraeocoris pallidus A1B3C3D4
Jalysus spinosus A1B3C3D4
Macrolophus caliginosus in greenhouses A1B1C2D2
Nabis alternatus A1B3C3D4
Orius insidiosus A1B4C4D1-2
Orius tristicolor A1B4C4D1-2
Rinacola sp. A1B3C3D4
Spanangonicus sp. A1B3C3D4


A - Taxonomy: 1-established; 2-under study; 3-status unclear

B - Biology: 1-at least some life history known; 2-under study; 3-some comprehensive studies (behavior etc.); 4-not investigated

C - Success in biological control of Bemisia tabaci: 1-frequent; 2-occasional, including high natural parasitization; 3-not tried; 4-being tried presently; 5-failure.

D - Rearing: 1-available commercially; 2-limited rearing in quarantine, or for release; 3-rearing for experiments; 4-not reared


1. Polaszek et. al.* produced a full list of synonyms. We present here only a few that, we feel, would be of more frequent use to the investigators.

2. Category C2 includes cases of high natural parasitization, since such information may be useful for those searching for efficient natural enemies.

3. *Recently introduced into the US for possible Bemisia tabaci control. In addition, much material that has been introduced has not yet been identified to species.

**These species are presently the subjects of large scale field trials in California.

4. We would appreciate receiving additions and corrections of biological and taxonomic data for future use.

*Reference: Polaszek, A., G. Evans, and F.D. Bennett, 1992. Encarsia parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) - a preliminary guide to identification. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 1992, 82:375-392.


At the last ESA meeting in Baltimore in December 1992, the board of the IOBC/NRS (International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants/Nearctic Regional Section) approved its third working group (WG). This group will deal with all whitefly pests, not only Bemisia, and examine ways to control them by employing natural enemies. The purpose of this WG is threefold: (1)Exchange information between members in an informal way, (2)Plan cooperative word and avoid duplication of research efforts, and (3)Share ideas/progress/natural enemies and evaluate objectives/protocols.

The first event organized by the WG was the "World Wide Outreach for Biological Control of Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae)" symposium at the last ESA Meeting. Papers presented at this symposium are being reviewed for joint publication in the journal Biological Control. A first meeting of the WG was held at the "Biological and Integrated Control in Greenhouses:, a combined IOBC/WRPS and NRS meeting, held last May at Asilomar, California. The second meeting will be at the National ESA Meeting in Indianapolis, 12-16 December 1993. Additional events, more events such as symposia, etc. may also be organized. We intend to meet twice a year, at the Annual ESA Meeting and the USDA Five Year Plan Progress Meetings. Bemisia and IOBC/NRS Newsletter will be our official newsletters.

We now have 43 members. There are no fees, but members are encouraged to join the IOBC. Please send $20 (students $15) to James R. Nechols, Dept. of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, Ph. (913)532-6154, FAX (913)532-6232. Anyone who is interested can join the WG by sending in his/her name and address to the chair.

Chair, Secretary
Dr. D.A. Norlund Dr. Oscar Minkenberg
Research Scientist Research Assistant Professor
USDA. ARS. SARL. BCPRU University of Arizona
2413 E. Highway 83 Department of Entomology
Ph. 210 969 4862 Tucson, AZ 85721
FAX 210 969 4888 Ph. 602 321 7714
FAX 602 621 1150


The subgroup on Bemisia tabaci was formed at the conference held in Copenhagen in 1990. The purpose of group is to provide a basis for cooperation and thus to avoid too much overlap in the research undertaken by the many scientists working with aspects relating to biological control of Bemisia tabaci in greenhouses. Although the group is kept within the framework of the WPR-Section of IOBC, scientists from other regions are represented in the group as well. The group functions through yearly distribution of updated summaries from each member of present and planned work and through meetings held in the course of the regular meetings of the IOBC/WPRS working group. Through the coordinator, the subgroup is in contact with other groups of scientists (e.g. in USA and Israel) working both with the mentioned topics and with other aspects of Bemisia tabaci. The contact is based on regular exchange of information and subsequent distribution of this to the members.

Scientists working with the topics defined in the title of this subgroup is welcome to join the group. Send a note with a short description of your present and planned work on Bemisia tabaci to me, and you will be included in the group.

Finally, on behalf of the subgroup I thank Prof. Dan Gerling and Dr. Lance Osborne for letting us use "Bemisia Newsletter" for publication of this information from our group.


  • Annie Enkegaard, Research Centre for Plant Protection.
    Investigations have been conducted on the basic biology of and interactions between the Poinsettia-strain of Bemisia tabaci and Encarsia formosa by experiments on Poinsettia in the laboratory, in greenhouse cages and in the greenhouse. Present experiments with Bemisia tabaci consist of trials with E. formosa in small greenhouse cages to investigate the ability of the parasitoid to control Bemisia tabaci on potted Gerbera under different climatic conditions and at different densities of whiteflies. These experiments are part of a larger project aimed at developing an IPM program for potted Gerbera. Other natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci, e.g. Eretmocerus spp. may be included in future trials.

  • Reinhard Albert, Landesanstalt fur Pflanzenschutz.
    Experiments for the biological control of Bemisia tabaci in Southwest Germany. Bemisia tabaci is the most important pest species in the production of aquatic plants in one nursery. At the beginning of the experiment the high density of Bemisia tabaci was reduced by combined applications of an insecticide (Methomyl), Verticillium lecanii (2 applications) and Aschersonia aleyrodis (2 applications). After 3 weeks Encarsia formosa (1/m2weekly) and Eretmocerus californicus (3/m2 weekly) were introduced. Other pests are controlled by beneficials like Amblyseius spp., Aphidoletes aphidimyza and Chrysoperla carnae. This experiment will run for two years. It is planned to introduce E. californicus in Poinsettia stands at high temperatures in July, August and September together with E. formosa and E. formosa alone in October, November and December. In addition to the biocontrol, the attractiveness of yellow and blue sticky traps for the two parasitoids will be tested.

  • Marion Ruisinger, Pflanzenshutzamt Oldenburg c/o Landwirtschaftsamt Aschendorf.
    Biological control of Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum in productions of Poinsettia in North- West- Germany. In 1990 a special project with financial support by the German Ministry of Nutrition, Agriculture and Forestry was started with the aim to introduce and establish systems of biological pest control in horticulture productions of North- West- Germany. Within this project Encarsia formosa was to be introduced against T. vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci in cultures of Poinsettia in several horticultural companies. The production area with biological control of whiteflies covered 1 ha in 1991 and 1.6 ha in 1992. In mother cultures of Poinsettia, E. formosa was introduced in weekly intervals using application rates of 1 parasitoid per 1.5-4 plants in 1991 and 1 parasitoid per 2-3 plants in 1992. In normal Poinsettia cultures the average application rate was 1 parasitoid per 3 plants in weekly intervals. Only in one of the experiments under practical conditions was E. formosa alone able to keep the Poinsettia culture free from whiteflies. During all other experiments applications of insecticides against Bemisia tabaci and T. vaporariorum proved to be necessary. However, the number of applications of insecticides could be greatly reduced due to the releases of E. formosa. During 1992, for example, only two applications of insecticides had to be carried out in cultures of mother plants, while in normal Poinsettia cultures only one application became necessary. For experiments in 1993 the introduction of Eretmocerus californicus is planned in addition to E. formosa to improve the biological control of Bemisia tabaci.

  • Ibolya Hatala-Zseller, Biological Control Laboratory of Hmvhely Institute.
    Bemisia tabaci is located in some glass house ornamentals. The pest is not yet established in protected vegetables, but is expected to appear in these crops as well. The greenhouses are regularly checked to determine whether the cotton whitefly is present. The Biological Control Laboratory continually works on development of an IPM program for control of Bemisia tabaci. The program is based on introduction of Encarsia formosa. Some new IGR ingredients will be tested for efficacy against Bemisia tabaci and their side-effects on E. formosa and other beneficials will be measured. Plant extracts will be tested in the same way. The aim is to find compatible chemicals for the IPM program. As a new natural enemy, a Dicyphus species found in our glasshouse will be tested against Bemisia tabaci to investigate whether or not it can be an effective predator in control of whiteflies.

  • Menachem J. Berlinger, Sarah Lebiush-Mordechi and R. Rotem. Gilat Regional Experiment Station.
    1. Application of screens to prevent whitefly penetration into greenhouses. Different screens were tested by experiments in the laboratory, in the field under low tunnels, and in commercial greenhouses. In the laboratory experiments a good correlation was found between the density of the screen mesh, and the percent penetration of the whiteflies. In the experiments conducted under the tunnels and in commercial greenhouses, the number of trapped whiteflies was significantly lower than those trapped outdoors, and it was below the acceptable economic damage threshold. In both tests, the number of trapped whiteflies were much lower than would be expected based on the laboratory results.
    2. Breeding tomatoes resistant to virus transmission by Bemisia tabaci. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), the most harmful tomato disease in the Middle East, is transmitted solely by Bemisia tabaci. A breeding program, aimed at developing vector-resistant tomato plants, has been started. In a field test, a series of hybrids of tomato crossed with wild Lycopersicon types were checked under heavy natural infestation. Some of the hybrids were evaluated as resistant. The breeding program is in progress.
    Biocontrol of Bemisia tabaci. A project of biocontrol was started recently within an IPM-program in greenhouse crops. The natural enemies under experiments are: Delphastus pusillus and Encarsia transvena.
    3. Insecticides' efficiency in controlling Bemisia tabaci. Some pyrethroids have been known to efficiently prevent TYLCV transmission by Bemisia tabaci. Lately, reports of decreased insecticide efficiency have been made. In the summer of 1992 recommended and new insecticides were checked in the field. Spread of TYLCV was not prevented sufficiently by any of the insecticides. During the years, remarkable changes were noticed in whitefly population densities and in virus-transmission rates. It seems that two processes affect insecticide efficiency: population density and a decrease in whitefly sensitivity to insecticides.

  • Shimon Steinberg, Biological Control Industries.
    At BCI we are focusing on the development of mass rearing techniques for the whitefly predator, Delphastus pusillus, a coccinelid beetle imported to Israel from Florida a few years ago. In parallel, we are studying the role of the host plant and different herbivore prey on the fitness of the ladybeetle. In the very near future we are about to conduct efficacy tests in the field, e.g. a greenhouse of vegetables (tomato/eggplant/melon or cucumber) and a greenhouse of ornamentals, presumably Gerbera. Mode of application (timing and technique), introduction rates, sampling methods of both Bemisia tabaci and the predator, are the major parameters which will be looked at. In preparation to the field tests, aiming at integrating D. pusillus in IPM systems, we are currently developing a laboratory and semi-field test to screen the effect of some relevant pesticides on the ladybeetle.

  • Massimo Benuzzi, Biolab, Centrale Ortofrutticola.
    At Biolab we are working in commercial Poinsettia glasshouses on about 800.000-1.000.000 plants (12-15 ha) using Encarsia formosa as inundative release against Bemisia tabaci. In Sicily, Biolab has found a parasitoid (possibly Eretmocerus mundus) on Bemisia tabaci on sweet pepper. A small rearing will be started for evaluation of this parasitoid in laboratory and field experiments and for comparison with other strains of E. mundus coming from the Mediterranean Basin.

  • Masaharu Matsui, Sucking Insect Pest Lab, National Research Institute of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea.
    Investigations have been undertaken on 1) the preference of Encarsia formosa for Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum under various conditions, 2) the damage to vegetables and ornamental plants by Bemisia tabaci, 3) the irregular ripening of tomato fruit caused by Bemisia tabaci, 4) control of Bemisia tabaci on tomato in small glasshouses by releasing E. formosa, 5) effective granular insecticides against Bemisia tabaci. In the future, the work on biocontrol of Bemisia tabaci with E. formosa will be continued. Emphasis will be placed on the ability of the wasp to suppress whiteflies under the hot climate conditions in the open structured Japanese greenhouses and with co-existence of both species of whiteflies. In addition, I am interested in other natural enemies - both of domestic and foreign origin - of Bemisia tabaci and their efficacy in greenhouses and in fields. Investigations on breeding of natural enemies to improve efficacy for control of Bemisia tabaci will be undertaken.

  • Joanne J. Fransen, M. Boogard and J. Tolsma, Research Station for Floriculture.
    1. Research of population parameters of Bemisia tabaci. Studies are being carried out considering developmental period, fecundity and mortality on a range of host plants like Begonia, Bouvardia, Gerbera, Hibiscus and Poinsettia. Also the influence of temperature on development is a topic of research. Threshold levels, monitoring and sampling techniques are studies.
    2. Research on biological control of Bemisia tabaci. The effect of a range of entomopathogenic fungi is studied. Pathogenicity studies of Aschersonia aleyrodis, other Aschersonia sp., Verticillium lecanii and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus on Bemisia tabaci are carried out. Different factors influencing the effectivity of these fungi like temperature, relative humidity, culture method, formulation, host plant, application technique, etc. are studied.
    3. The study of the interaction between natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci. This relates to the introduction of parasitoids and predators as well as entomopathogens to obtain an optimal control strategy of whiteflies in greenhouses.

  • Heather J. Henter, Wageningen Agricultural University, Dept. of Entomology.
    Attempts to use Encarsia formosa to control Bemisia tabaci have yielded little success. Indeed, previous research has shown that Bemisia tabaci is a poorer host (higher immature mortality, less fecund adults) for E. formosa than is the more successfully controlled Trialeurodes vaporariorum. The E. formosa populations used in research and biological control efforts, however, have all been reared on T. vaporariorum for more than 20 years. Thus it is quite likely that these populations have been selected for performance on that host. We are testing the hypothesis that selection for the use of Bemisia tabaci could improve the relative ability of E. formosa to utilize this host. To address this hypothesis we have been comparing different populations of E. formosa that have different rearing histories. From other laboratories we have obtained parasitoid populations that have been reared for 4 or more years on Bemisia tabaci, and populations that have been continuously reared on T. vaporariorum. Our expectation is that these prolonged rearing periods should have selected wasps with relatively improved performance on their respective hosts. The data we are using to test this hypothesis are the number of adult wasps that are ultimately produced by interactions between individual wasps from each population and each of the two host species. The bioassays are done in such a way so that we can separate inherited effects from effects due to conditioning, or the immediate host on which an individual wasp is reared. These experiments are still in progress and the data are tentative. It appears, however, that for both host species, the parasitoid population that has been reared for many generations on that host produce more wasps from that host than do wasps that have been reared for many generations on the alternate host species. Future work will include behavioral analyses of the interactions between wasps from these different populations and the two different host species, further selection experiments, and biochemical identification of these different parasitoid populations.

  • Joop vanLenteren, Wageningen Agricultural University, Dept. of Entomology.
    Research on Bemisia tabaci in Wageningen. 1) comparison of performance of several Encarsia formosa strains on Bemisia tabaci, 2) search and parasitization behavior of E. formosa when offered pure and mixed cultures of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci, 3) computer model of host plants-whiteflies- and their natural enemies, 4) evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for control of Bemisia tabaci.

  • Willem J. Ravensberg and Jeroen van Schelt, Koppert B.V.
    In the Netherlands Bemisia tabaci has become an increasing problem in tomatoes, cucumber, eggplant and ornamentals as Gerbera and Bouvardia. Biological control programs are under serious pressure. Our current research is focused on parasites and entomopathogenic fungi. The performance of Encarsia formosa and Eretmocerus californicus is tested in the laboratory and under field conditions. We have developed a bioassay for individual screening of female wasps. Small cups with an agar layer and a leaf disc with larvae are used instead of clip cages. More parasite species will be collected and tested. The commercially available strain of Verticillium lecanii (Mycotal) has been tested on Bemisia tabaciwith promising results. Research on the performance of Aschersonia spp. has been started. This fungus is at the moment not commercially available.

  • Aurelio Carnero, Gobierno de Canarias, Dept. of Plant Protection, Centro de Investigacion y Technologia Agrarias.
    A National Project "Integrated Control of Bemisia tabaci" has been initiated. The goals of the project are to investigate 1) the taxonomic status of the pest by studies on strains, their detection and identification, 2) the symptoms and damages (direct and indirect) caused by Bemisia tabaci in different crops, 3) the bioecology of Bemisia tabaci, 4) the population dynamics and relationship with Trialeurodes vaporariorum (preliminary studies), 5) the role of indigenous natural enemies and evaluation of the use of Encarsia formosa against Bemisia tabaci, 6) the efficacy of chemical, integrated and biological control, including the use of traps.

  • Richard Baker and Sharon Cheek, MAFF, Central Science Lab.
    Studies on Bemisia tabaci at the Central Science Laboratory. In the UK, Bemisia tabaci is a quarantine pest and subject to statutory control and eradication measures. Under the EC plant health directives, the UK has protected zone status against this pest. CSL monitors every outbreak and advises on the control measures to be taken. To ensure that the measures taken are appropriate to the risk, we are conducting studies to assess its potential as a pest in UK conditions, primarily in the glasshouse. The greatest threat is probably its potential as a virus vector and so we are currently investigating the degree to which virus transmission can be predicted. The pest is primarily introduced into the UK by cuttings. Quarantine treatments are therefore being studied in order to develop an effective eradicator treatment which can be applied to all consignments.

  • John Buxton, ADAS.
    A range of insecticides has been screened using Bemisia tabaci on commercially available Poinsettia varieties. The following products have been tested against egg, scale and pupal stages of the"B" strain of Bemisia tabaci in replicated glasshouse tests: refined petroleum oil, teflubenzuran, buprofezin and savona (a horticultural soap). The aim was to find a product which would give good control of Bemisia tabaci on young Poinsettias as they arrive as cuttings from abroad, and also to be compatible with an IPM system for use later on. For this reason, materials such as pyrethroids were not screened because they are not compatible with IPM systems. From this work, refined petroleum oil and buprofezin have been shown to be active against all stages of this pest. Buprofezin is not yet on the UK market however, but petroleum oil, as Hortichem spraying oil, is available. Further information on the safety of the oil to all major Poinsettia varieties is needed before its use can be recommended. Future work planned includes the use of Encarsia parasites either alone or following the IPM-compatible pesticides previously listed. It is also planned to evaluate the relative host suitably of the major Poinsettia cultivars, i.e. to find out which variety favours Bemisia tabaci most.

  • Matthew Cahill, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Department of Biological and Ecological Chemistry.
    Research by the Insecticide Resistance Group at Rothamsted aims to characterize and understand the dynamics and mechanisms of resistance in Bemisia tabaci and to use this information as a basis for resistance prevention and management. Techniques have been developed to detect resistance at both the toxicological and biochemical levels. This has allowed us to document resistance and cross resistance patterns to organophosphates and pyrethroids in populations collected from around the world. A library of strains with varying levels of insecticide resistance is maintained. More recently, some strains of Bemisia tabaci collected from glasshouses in the Netherlands have shown tolerance to the IGR buprofezin ("Applaud"). Loss of such selective insecticides could prove a severe setback to implementating IPM tactics. Large "field simulator" cages allow us to investigate the efficacy of insecticides against populations of Bemisia tabaci in conditions approximating those in the field and to evaluate tactics that may delay or prevent resistance build-up. This methodology has also been exploited to study interactions between Bemisia tabaci, a parasitoid (primarily Eretmocerus mundus), and insecticides. Our research includes novel compounds such as buprofezin, imidacloprid, pymetrozine etc., and involved collaboration with workers in overseas countries - notably the Netherlands, Pakistan, Israel and the USA.

  • Richard K. Lindquist, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Centre, Dept. of Entomology.
    The future work on Bemisia tabaci includes 1) continuation of a cooperative project together with Lance Osborne, University of Florida, using PFR fungi. We will be doing some ULV sprays (electrostatic, coldfog, etc.), 2) evaluation of biorational pesticides for effects on Bemisia tabaci, 3) continuation of comparison between "imported" and "domestic" strains of Encarsia formosa for control of Bemisia tabaci.

  • Don Nordlund, USDA, ARS, SARL, Biological Pest Control Research Unit.
    A Cooperative Research, Implementation and Assessment Project for Sweetpotato Whitefly Biological Control was initiated this year. This project involves the USDA, Agricultural Research Service and the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at Weslaco, TX; and the USDA, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service offices in Mission, Harlingen and Bronsville, TX. The goals of the project include an analysis of whitefly activity in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, identification of natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci and the plants they are associated with (particularly crop plants), evaluation of the impact of augmentative releases of natural enemies, and development of simulation models for Bemisia tabaci in agroecosystems. My involvement in the project involves studies (in cooperation with J.C. Legaspi and R.L. Meagher, Jr.) on the predators of Bemisia tabaci with emphasis on the use of Chrysoperla rufilabris in augmentative releases against this important pest. We have demonstrated that C. rufilabris can control Bemisia tabaci on greenhouse Hibiscus, that Bemisia tabaci alone is an inadequate food source for the predator, that C. rufilabris larvae are at least tolerant to several commonly used pesticides, and that they can reduce populations of Bemisia tabaci on field grown melons.

  • Ronald Oetting, The University of Georgia, Dept. of Entomology, Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations.
    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments have been conducted to determine if Chrysoperla rufilabris could potentially be an effective predator for the management of Bemisia tabaci on greenhouse crops. Predation was observed and daily consumption of whitefly immatures and eggs determined in the laboratory. Bemisia tabaci was consumed readily by lacewing larvae but larval development was not normal. In greenhouse experiments there was predation on whitefly but research is needed on release methods and plant acceptance. Lacewing larvae had a tendency to move off of plants in greenhouse experiments.


A joint, Israeli-American, international workshop will be held in Israel during 3 - 7 October 1994, on the subject of "An Assessment of The Biology and Management Strategies of Bemisia tabaci from an International Perspective"

Venue and technical details

The workshop will be held at the Shoresh Hotel and Conference Center, in the Judean Hills, about 20 minutes from Jerusalem (and 40 min. from Tel Aviv). It is readily reached from Tel Aviv, or from Jerusalem as well as from Ben Gurion Airport. Room and board will be provided at Shoresh for ca. 80$ per person, double occupancy per day. Registration fee will be 180$ US before April 1, 1994, and 200$ US thereafter.

Scientific program

The topics of the conference will be

I. Life history, ecology and basic aspects of biology
II. Field dynamics
III. International cooperation
IV. Virus transmission
V. Disease expression and pest manifestation
VI. Plant resistance
VII. Natural enemies
VIII. Insecticides

The 5 day program will include a one day (Wednesday) excursion to agricultural research institutions.

The workshop will consist of major presentations by recognized authorities in each of the subject areas and a limited number of short presentations that will be selected by the section discussion leaders. Poster presentations are welcome.

Tours and spouses' program. Non-Participating family members may wish to come and take advantage of the fact that Shoresh is a resort hotel close to Jerusalem. Excursions to places of interest will be available in accordance of the number of participants. In addition, both professional and sight-seeing tours will be available before and after the meetings.

Official invitation letters to the workshop will be issued upon request.

Interested persons may write to:

In Israel: Dr. Dan Gerling Phone + 972 3 6408611
Professor of Entomology FAX + 972 3 6409404
Department of Zoology
Tel Aviv University
Ramat Aviv, Israel 69978

In the U.S.: Dr. R. Mayer Phone 407 897 7304
Laboratory Director FAX 407 897 7309
Horticultural Research Lab
2120 Camden Rd.
Orlando, FL 32803, U.S.A.

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