The recent upsurge in Bemisia tabaci, which has become
of major concern in numerous places, has brought about an increased interest
in this pest. A number of work groups have been organized in order to
facilitate better exchange of information regarding control or management
of the basic and applied aspects. These changes call for parallel changes
in the 'Bemisia' newsletter, both in the subject matter that is
covered and in the number of people that it reaches. Such changes will,
permit the newsletter to continue to serve as a useful platform for the
exchange of information about this interesting and important insect.
The present issue is devoted mainly to information about two new work
groups, one that has formed some time ago, in Europe, and the other that
is presently being formed in the U.S. We have also included a questionnaire
that, once filled out and returned to us, should make the newsletter more
useful. A short update on the information that is presently available
about the parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci is included, as well as
an announcement of a meeting on Bemisia tabaci that will take place
this year in Israel.
Enemies of Bemisia tabaci
New Working Group on Biological Control of Whiteflies in the US
IOBC/WPRS "INTEGRATED CONTROL IN GLASSHOUSES": Information
on the subgroup "Biological control of Bemisia tabaci in
BARD sponsored international workshop on Bemisia tabaci
Amitus sp. from the Caribbean
Encarsia adrianae Lopez-Avila
Encarsia brevivena Hayat
Encarsia cibcensis Lopez-Avila
Viggiani -bicolor DeSantis
Encarsia formosa Gahan
Encarsia hispida DeSantis
Encarsia inaron (Walker) =partenopea
Encarsia japonica Viggiani
Encarsia longifasciata Subba Rao
Encarsia lutea Masi
Encarsia luteola Howard =deserti
Ger. & Ri
Encarsia mineoi Viggiani
Encarsia mohyuddini Shafee &
Encarsia nigricephala Dozier
Encarsia pergandiella Howard
Encarsia porteri Mercet
Encarsia quaintancei Howard
Encarsia strenua Silvestri
Encarsia transvena Timberlake =sublutea
Eretmocerus mundus Mercet
Eretmocerus sp. A uniparental (HI)
Eretmocerus sp. B biparental Calif.
Eretmocerus sp.corni Haldeman
Eretmocerus haldemani Howard
Macrolophus caliginosus in greenhouses
A - Taxonomy: 1-established; 2-under study; 3-status unclear
B - Biology: 1-at least some life history known; 2-under study; 3-some
comprehensive studies (behavior etc.); 4-not investigated
C - Success in biological control of Bemisia tabaci: 1-frequent;
2-occasional, including high natural parasitization; 3-not tried; 4-being
tried presently; 5-failure.
D - Rearing: 1-available commercially; 2-limited rearing in quarantine,
or for release; 3-rearing for experiments; 4-not reared
1. Polaszek et. al.* produced a full list of synonyms. We present here
only a few that, we feel, would be of more frequent use to the investigators.
2. Category C2 includes cases of high natural parasitization, since such
information may be useful for those searching for efficient natural enemies.
3. *Recently introduced into the US for possible Bemisia tabaci
control. In addition, much material that has been introduced has not yet
been identified to species.
**These species are presently the subjects of large scale field trials
4. We would appreciate receiving additions and corrections of biological
and taxonomic data for future use.
*Reference: Polaszek, A., G. Evans, and F.D. Bennett, 1992. Encarsia parasitoids
of Bemisia tabaci (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) -
a preliminary guide to identification. Bulletin of Entomological Research,
At the last ESA meeting in Baltimore in December 1992, the board of the
IOBC/NRS (International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious
Animals and Plants/Nearctic Regional Section) approved its third working
group (WG). This group will deal with all whitefly pests, not only Bemisia,
and examine ways to control them by employing natural enemies. The purpose
of this WG is threefold: (1)Exchange information between members in an
informal way, (2)Plan cooperative word and avoid duplication of research
efforts, and (3)Share ideas/progress/natural enemies and evaluate objectives/protocols.
The first event organized by the WG was the "World Wide Outreach
for Biological Control of Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae)" symposium at
the last ESA Meeting. Papers presented at this symposium are being reviewed
for joint publication in the journal Biological Control. A first meeting
of the WG was held at the "Biological and Integrated Control in Greenhouses:,
a combined IOBC/WRPS and NRS meeting, held last May at Asilomar, California.
The second meeting will be at the National ESA Meeting in Indianapolis,
12-16 December 1993. Additional events, more events such as symposia,
etc. may also be organized. We intend to meet twice a year, at the Annual
ESA Meeting and the USDA Five Year Plan Progress Meetings. Bemisia and
IOBC/NRS Newsletter will be our official newsletters.
We now have 43 members. There are no fees, but members are encouraged
to join the IOBC. Please send $20 (students $15) to James R. Nechols,
Dept. of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, Ph.
(913)532-6154, FAX (913)532-6232. Anyone who is interested can join the
WG by sending in his/her name and address to the chair.
Dr. D.A. Norlund Dr. Oscar Minkenberg
Research Scientist Research Assistant Professor
USDA. ARS. SARL. BCPRU University of Arizona
2413 E. Highway 83 Department of Entomology
Ph. 210 969 4862 Tucson, AZ 85721
FAX 210 969 4888 Ph. 602 321 7714
FAX 602 621 1150
The subgroup on Bemisia tabaci was formed at the conference held
in Copenhagen in 1990. The purpose of group is to provide a basis for
cooperation and thus to avoid too much overlap in the research undertaken
by the many scientists working with aspects relating to biological control
of Bemisia tabaci in greenhouses. Although the group is kept within
the framework of the WPR-Section of IOBC, scientists from other regions
are represented in the group as well. The group functions through yearly
distribution of updated summaries from each member of present and planned
work and through meetings held in the course of the regular meetings of
the IOBC/WPRS working group. Through the coordinator, the subgroup is
in contact with other groups of scientists (e.g. in USA and Israel) working
both with the mentioned topics and with other aspects of Bemisia tabaci.
The contact is based on regular exchange of information and subsequent
distribution of this to the members.
Scientists working with the topics defined in the title of this subgroup
is welcome to join the group. Send a note with a short description of
your present and planned work on Bemisia tabaci to me, and you
will be included in the group.
Finally, on behalf of the subgroup I thank Prof. Dan Gerling and Dr. Lance
Osborne for letting us use "Bemisia Newsletter" for publication
of this information from our group.
Annie Enkegaard, Research Centre for Plant Protection.
Investigations have been conducted on the basic biology of and interactions
between the Poinsettia-strain of Bemisia tabaci and Encarsia
formosa by experiments on Poinsettia in the laboratory, in greenhouse
cages and in the greenhouse. Present experiments with Bemisia tabaci
consist of trials with E. formosa in small greenhouse cages to investigate
the ability of the parasitoid to control Bemisia tabaci on potted
Gerbera under different climatic conditions and at different densities
of whiteflies. These experiments are part of a larger project aimed
at developing an IPM program for potted Gerbera. Other natural enemies
of Bemisia tabaci, e.g. Eretmocerus spp. may be included
in future trials.
Reinhard Albert, Landesanstalt fur Pflanzenschutz.
Experiments for the biological control of Bemisia tabaci in Southwest
Germany. Bemisia tabaci is the most important pest species
in the production of aquatic plants in one nursery. At the beginning
of the experiment the high density of Bemisia tabaci was reduced
by combined applications of an insecticide (Methomyl), Verticillium
lecanii (2 applications) and Aschersonia aleyrodis (2 applications).
After 3 weeks Encarsia formosa (1/m2weekly) and Eretmocerus
californicus (3/m2 weekly) were introduced. Other pests
are controlled by beneficials like Amblyseius spp., Aphidoletes
aphidimyza and Chrysoperla carnae. This experiment will run
for two years. It is planned to introduce E. californicus in
Poinsettia stands at high temperatures in July, August and September
together with E. formosa and E. formosa alone in October,
November and December. In addition to the biocontrol, the attractiveness
of yellow and blue sticky traps for the two parasitoids will be tested.
Marion Ruisinger, Pflanzenshutzamt Oldenburg c/o Landwirtschaftsamt
Biological control of Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum
in productions of Poinsettia in North- West- Germany. In 1990 a special
project with financial support by the German Ministry of Nutrition,
Agriculture and Forestry was started with the aim to introduce and establish
systems of biological pest control in horticulture productions of North-
West- Germany. Within this project Encarsia formosa was to be
introduced against T. vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci
in cultures of Poinsettia in several horticultural companies. The production
area with biological control of whiteflies covered 1 ha in 1991 and
1.6 ha in 1992. In mother cultures of Poinsettia, E. formosa
was introduced in weekly intervals using application rates of 1 parasitoid
per 1.5-4 plants in 1991 and 1 parasitoid per 2-3 plants in 1992. In
normal Poinsettia cultures the average application rate was 1 parasitoid
per 3 plants in weekly intervals. Only in one of the experiments under
practical conditions was E. formosa alone able to keep the Poinsettia
culture free from whiteflies. During all other experiments applications
of insecticides against Bemisia tabaci and T. vaporariorum
proved to be necessary. However, the number of applications of insecticides
could be greatly reduced due to the releases of E. formosa. During
1992, for example, only two applications of insecticides had to be carried
out in cultures of mother plants, while in normal Poinsettia cultures
only one application became necessary. For experiments in 1993 the introduction
of Eretmocerus californicus is planned in addition to E. formosa
to improve the biological control of Bemisia tabaci.
Ibolya Hatala-Zseller, Biological Control Laboratory of Hmvhely Institute. Bemisia tabaci is located in some glass house ornamentals. The
pest is not yet established in protected vegetables, but is expected
to appear in these crops as well. The greenhouses are regularly checked
to determine whether the cotton whitefly is present. The Biological
Control Laboratory continually works on development of an IPM program
for control of Bemisia tabaci. The program is based on introduction
of Encarsia formosa. Some new IGR ingredients will be tested
for efficacy against Bemisia tabaci and their side-effects on
E. formosa and other beneficials will be measured. Plant extracts
will be tested in the same way. The aim is to find compatible chemicals
for the IPM program. As a new natural enemy, a Dicyphus species
found in our glasshouse will be tested against Bemisia tabaci
to investigate whether or not it can be an effective predator in control
Menachem J. Berlinger, Sarah Lebiush-Mordechi and R. Rotem. Gilat
Regional Experiment Station.
1. Application of screens to prevent whitefly penetration into greenhouses.
Different screens were tested by experiments in the laboratory, in the
field under low tunnels, and in commercial greenhouses. In the laboratory
experiments a good correlation was found between the density of the
screen mesh, and the percent penetration of the whiteflies. In the experiments
conducted under the tunnels and in commercial greenhouses, the number
of trapped whiteflies was significantly lower than those trapped outdoors,
and it was below the acceptable economic damage threshold. In both tests,
the number of trapped whiteflies were much lower than would be expected
based on the laboratory results.
2. Breeding tomatoes resistant to virus transmission by Bemisia tabaci.
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), the most harmful tomato
disease in the Middle East, is transmitted solely by Bemisia tabaci.
A breeding program, aimed at developing vector-resistant tomato plants,
has been started. In a field test, a series of hybrids of tomato crossed
with wild Lycopersicon types were checked under heavy natural
infestation. Some of the hybrids were evaluated as resistant. The breeding
program is in progress.
Biocontrol of Bemisia tabaci. A project of biocontrol was started
recently within an IPM-program in greenhouse crops. The natural enemies
under experiments are: Delphastus pusillus and Encarsia transvena.
3. Insecticides' efficiency in controlling Bemisia tabaci. Some
pyrethroids have been known to efficiently prevent TYLCV transmission
by Bemisia tabaci. Lately, reports of decreased insecticide efficiency
have been made. In the summer of 1992 recommended and new insecticides
were checked in the field. Spread of TYLCV was not prevented sufficiently
by any of the insecticides. During the years, remarkable changes were
noticed in whitefly population densities and in virus-transmission rates.
It seems that two processes affect insecticide efficiency: population
density and a decrease in whitefly sensitivity to insecticides.
Shimon Steinberg, Biological Control Industries.
At BCI we are focusing on the development of mass rearing techniques
for the whitefly predator, Delphastus pusillus, a coccinelid
beetle imported to Israel from Florida a few years ago. In parallel,
we are studying the role of the host plant and different herbivore prey
on the fitness of the ladybeetle. In the very near future we are about
to conduct efficacy tests in the field, e.g. a greenhouse of vegetables
(tomato/eggplant/melon or cucumber) and a greenhouse of ornamentals,
presumably Gerbera. Mode of application (timing and technique), introduction
rates, sampling methods of both Bemisia tabaci and the predator,
are the major parameters which will be looked at. In preparation to
the field tests, aiming at integrating D. pusillus in IPM systems,
we are currently developing a laboratory and semi-field test to screen
the effect of some relevant pesticides on the ladybeetle.
Massimo Benuzzi, Biolab, Centrale Ortofrutticola.
At Biolab we are working in commercial Poinsettia glasshouses on about
800.000-1.000.000 plants (12-15 ha) using Encarsia formosa as
inundative release against Bemisia tabaci. In Sicily, Biolab
has found a parasitoid (possibly Eretmocerus mundus) on Bemisia
tabaci on sweet pepper. A small rearing will be started for evaluation
of this parasitoid in laboratory and field experiments and for comparison
with other strains of E. mundus coming from the Mediterranean
Masaharu Matsui, Sucking Insect Pest Lab, National Research Institute
of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea.
Investigations have been undertaken on 1) the preference of Encarsia
formosa for Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum
under various conditions, 2) the damage to vegetables and ornamental
plants by Bemisia tabaci, 3) the irregular ripening of tomato
fruit caused by Bemisia tabaci, 4) control of Bemisia tabaci
on tomato in small glasshouses by releasing E. formosa, 5) effective
granular insecticides against Bemisia tabaci. In the future,
the work on biocontrol of Bemisia tabaci with E. formosa
will be continued. Emphasis will be placed on the ability of the wasp
to suppress whiteflies under the hot climate conditions in the open
structured Japanese greenhouses and with co-existence of both species
of whiteflies. In addition, I am interested in other natural enemies
- both of domestic and foreign origin - of Bemisia tabaci and
their efficacy in greenhouses and in fields. Investigations on breeding
of natural enemies to improve efficacy for control of Bemisia tabaci
will be undertaken.
Joanne J. Fransen, M. Boogard and J. Tolsma, Research Station for
1. Research of population parameters of Bemisia tabaci. Studies
are being carried out considering developmental period, fecundity and
mortality on a range of host plants like Begonia, Bouvardia, Gerbera,
Hibiscus and Poinsettia. Also the influence of temperature on development
is a topic of research. Threshold levels, monitoring and sampling techniques
2. Research on biological control of Bemisia tabaci. The effect
of a range of entomopathogenic fungi is studied. Pathogenicity studies
of Aschersonia aleyrodis, other Aschersonia sp., Verticillium
lecanii and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus on Bemisia tabaci
are carried out. Different factors influencing the effectivity of these
fungi like temperature, relative humidity, culture method, formulation,
host plant, application technique, etc. are studied.
3. The study of the interaction between natural enemies of Bemisia
tabaci. This relates to the introduction of parasitoids and predators
as well as entomopathogens to obtain an optimal control strategy of
whiteflies in greenhouses.
Heather J. Henter, Wageningen Agricultural University, Dept. of Entomology.
Attempts to use Encarsia formosa to control Bemisia tabaci
have yielded little success. Indeed, previous research has shown that
Bemisia tabaci is a poorer host (higher immature mortality, less
fecund adults) for E. formosa than is the more successfully controlled
Trialeurodes vaporariorum. The E. formosa populations
used in research and biological control efforts, however, have all been
reared on T. vaporariorum for more than 20 years. Thus it is
quite likely that these populations have been selected for performance
on that host. We are testing the hypothesis that selection for the use
of Bemisia tabaci could improve the relative ability of E.
formosa to utilize this host. To address this hypothesis we have
been comparing different populations of E. formosa that have
different rearing histories. From other laboratories we have obtained
parasitoid populations that have been reared for 4 or more years on
Bemisia tabaci, and populations that have been continuously reared
on T. vaporariorum. Our expectation is that these prolonged rearing
periods should have selected wasps with relatively improved performance
on their respective hosts. The data we are using to test this hypothesis
are the number of adult wasps that are ultimately produced by interactions
between individual wasps from each population and each of the two host
species. The bioassays are done in such a way so that we can separate
inherited effects from effects due to conditioning, or the immediate
host on which an individual wasp is reared. These experiments are still
in progress and the data are tentative. It appears, however, that for
both host species, the parasitoid population that has been reared for
many generations on that host produce more wasps from that host than
do wasps that have been reared for many generations on the alternate
host species. Future work will include behavioral analyses of the interactions
between wasps from these different populations and the two different
host species, further selection experiments, and biochemical identification
of these different parasitoid populations.
Joop vanLenteren, Wageningen Agricultural University, Dept. of Entomology.
Research on Bemisia tabaci in Wageningen. 1) comparison of performance
of several Encarsia formosa strains on Bemisia tabaci,
2) search and parasitization behavior of E. formosa when offered
pure and mixed cultures of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia
tabaci, 3) computer model of host plants-whiteflies- and their natural
enemies, 4) evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for control of Bemisia
Willem J. Ravensberg and Jeroen van Schelt, Koppert B.V.
In the Netherlands Bemisia tabaci has become an increasing problem
in tomatoes, cucumber, eggplant and ornamentals as Gerbera and Bouvardia.
Biological control programs are under serious pressure. Our current
research is focused on parasites and entomopathogenic fungi. The performance
of Encarsia formosa and Eretmocerus californicus is tested
in the laboratory and under field conditions. We have developed a bioassay
for individual screening of female wasps. Small cups with an agar layer
and a leaf disc with larvae are used instead of clip cages. More parasite
species will be collected and tested. The commercially available strain
of Verticillium lecanii (Mycotal) has been tested on Bemisia
tabaciwith promising results. Research on the performance of Aschersonia
spp. has been started. This fungus is at the moment not commercially
Aurelio Carnero, Gobierno de Canarias, Dept. of Plant Protection,
Centro de Investigacion y Technologia Agrarias.
A National Project "Integrated Control of Bemisia tabaci"
has been initiated. The goals of the project are to investigate 1) the
taxonomic status of the pest by studies on strains, their detection
and identification, 2) the symptoms and damages (direct and indirect)
caused by Bemisia tabaci in different crops, 3) the bioecology
of Bemisia tabaci, 4) the population dynamics and relationship
with Trialeurodes vaporariorum (preliminary studies), 5) the
role of indigenous natural enemies and evaluation of the use of Encarsia
formosa against Bemisia tabaci, 6) the efficacy of chemical,
integrated and biological control, including the use of traps.
Richard Baker and Sharon Cheek, MAFF, Central Science Lab.
Studies on Bemisia tabaci at the Central Science Laboratory.
In the UK, Bemisia tabaci is a quarantine pest and subject to
statutory control and eradication measures. Under the EC plant health
directives, the UK has protected zone status against this pest. CSL
monitors every outbreak and advises on the control measures to be taken.
To ensure that the measures taken are appropriate to the risk, we are
conducting studies to assess its potential as a pest in UK conditions,
primarily in the glasshouse. The greatest threat is probably its potential
as a virus vector and so we are currently investigating the degree to
which virus transmission can be predicted. The pest is primarily introduced
into the UK by cuttings. Quarantine treatments are therefore being studied
in order to develop an effective eradicator treatment which can be applied
to all consignments.
John Buxton, ADAS.
A range of insecticides has been screened using Bemisia tabaci
on commercially available Poinsettia varieties. The following products
have been tested against egg, scale and pupal stages of the"B"
strain of Bemisia tabaci in replicated glasshouse tests: refined
petroleum oil, teflubenzuran, buprofezin and savona (a horticultural
soap). The aim was to find a product which would give good control of
Bemisia tabaci on young Poinsettias as they arrive as cuttings
from abroad, and also to be compatible with an IPM system for use later
on. For this reason, materials such as pyrethroids were not screened
because they are not compatible with IPM systems. From this work, refined
petroleum oil and buprofezin have been shown to be active against all
stages of this pest. Buprofezin is not yet on the UK market however,
but petroleum oil, as Hortichem spraying oil, is available. Further
information on the safety of the oil to all major Poinsettia varieties
is needed before its use can be recommended. Future work planned includes
the use of Encarsia parasites either alone or following the IPM-compatible
pesticides previously listed. It is also planned to evaluate the relative
host suitably of the major Poinsettia cultivars, i.e. to find out which
variety favours Bemisia tabaci most.
Matthew Cahill, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Department of Biological
and Ecological Chemistry.
Research by the Insecticide Resistance Group at Rothamsted aims to characterize
and understand the dynamics and mechanisms of resistance in Bemisia
tabaci and to use this information as a basis for resistance prevention
and management. Techniques have been developed to detect resistance
at both the toxicological and biochemical levels. This has allowed us
to document resistance and cross resistance patterns to organophosphates
and pyrethroids in populations collected from around the world. A library
of strains with varying levels of insecticide resistance is maintained.
More recently, some strains of Bemisia tabaci collected from
glasshouses in the Netherlands have shown tolerance to the IGR buprofezin
("Applaud"). Loss of such selective insecticides could prove
a severe setback to implementating IPM tactics. Large "field simulator"
cages allow us to investigate the efficacy of insecticides against populations
of Bemisia tabaci in conditions approximating those in the field
and to evaluate tactics that may delay or prevent resistance build-up.
This methodology has also been exploited to study interactions between
Bemisia tabaci, a parasitoid (primarily Eretmocerus mundus),
and insecticides. Our research includes novel compounds such as buprofezin,
imidacloprid, pymetrozine etc., and involved collaboration with workers
in overseas countries - notably the Netherlands, Pakistan, Israel and
Richard K. Lindquist, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research
and Development Centre, Dept. of Entomology.
The future work on Bemisia tabaci includes 1) continuation of
a cooperative project together with Lance Osborne, University of Florida,
using PFR fungi. We will be doing some ULV sprays (electrostatic, coldfog,
etc.), 2) evaluation of biorational pesticides for effects on Bemisia
tabaci, 3) continuation of comparison between "imported"
and "domestic" strains of Encarsia formosa for control
of Bemisia tabaci.
Don Nordlund, USDA, ARS, SARL, Biological Pest Control Research Unit.
A Cooperative Research, Implementation and Assessment Project for Sweetpotato
Whitefly Biological Control was initiated this year. This project involves
the USDA, Agricultural Research Service and the Texas Agricultural Experiment
Station at Weslaco, TX; and the USDA, Animal Plant Health Inspection
Service offices in Mission, Harlingen and Bronsville, TX. The goals
of the project include an analysis of whitefly activity in the Lower
Rio Grande Valley of Texas, identification of natural enemies of Bemisia
tabaci and the plants they are associated with (particularly crop
plants), evaluation of the impact of augmentative releases of natural
enemies, and development of simulation models for Bemisia tabaci
in agroecosystems. My involvement in the project involves studies (in
cooperation with J.C. Legaspi and R.L. Meagher, Jr.) on the predators
of Bemisia tabaci with emphasis on the use of Chrysoperla
rufilabris in augmentative releases against this important pest.
We have demonstrated that C. rufilabris can control Bemisia
tabaci on greenhouse Hibiscus, that Bemisia tabaci
alone is an inadequate food source for the predator, that C. rufilabris
larvae are at least tolerant to several commonly used pesticides, and
that they can reduce populations of Bemisia tabaci on field grown
Ronald Oetting, The University of Georgia, Dept. of Entomology, Georgia
Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Laboratory and greenhouse experiments have been conducted to determine
if Chrysoperla rufilabris could potentially be an effective predator
for the management of Bemisia tabaci on greenhouse crops. Predation
was observed and daily consumption of whitefly immatures and eggs determined
in the laboratory. Bemisia tabaci was consumed readily by lacewing
larvae but larval development was not normal. In greenhouse experiments
there was predation on whitefly but research is needed on release methods
and plant acceptance. Lacewing larvae had a tendency to move off of
plants in greenhouse experiments.
A joint, Israeli-American, international workshop will be held in Israel
during 3 - 7 October 1994, on the subject of "An Assessment of The
Biology and Management Strategies of Bemisia tabaci from an International
Venue and technical details
The workshop will be held at the Shoresh Hotel and Conference Center,
in the Judean Hills, about 20 minutes from Jerusalem (and 40 min. from
Tel Aviv). It is readily reached from Tel Aviv, or from Jerusalem as well
as from Ben Gurion Airport. Room and board will be provided at Shoresh
for ca. 80$ per person, double occupancy per day. Registration fee will
be 180$ US before April 1, 1994, and 200$ US thereafter.
The topics of the conference will be
I. Life history, ecology and basic aspects of biology
II. Field dynamics
III. International cooperation
IV. Virus transmission
V. Disease expression and pest manifestation
VI. Plant resistance
VII. Natural enemies
The 5 day program will include a one day (Wednesday) excursion to agricultural
The workshop will consist of major presentations by recognized authorities
in each of the subject areas and a limited number of short presentations
that will be selected by the section discussion leaders. Poster presentations
Tours and spouses' program. Non-Participating family members may wish
to come and take advantage of the fact that Shoresh is a resort hotel
close to Jerusalem. Excursions to places of interest will be available
in accordance of the number of participants. In addition, both professional
and sight-seeing tours will be available before and after the meetings.
Official invitation letters to the workshop will be issued upon request.
Interested persons may write to:
In Israel: Dr. Dan Gerling Phone + 972 3 6408611
Professor of Entomology FAX + 972 3 6409404
Department of Zoology
Tel Aviv University
Ramat Aviv, Israel 69978
In the U.S.: Dr. R. Mayer Phone 407 897 7304
Laboratory Director FAX 407 897 7309
Horticultural Research Lab
2120 Camden Rd.
Orlando, FL 32803, U.S.A.